Hamilton, Robert, Backgammon, Rules of the Game, Photo vorhanden. Goren Norfolk, Tim, Backgammon, Rules, Strategy, Winning Play, Photo. Welcome to Backgammon - Lord of the Board - If you LOVE playing online Backgammon with friends then you have come to the right place! Even if you are a. Backgammon is one of the best PvP games ever created. The Backgammon offline turned into an online board game that stays true to the rules.
Übersetzung für "Backgammon Rules" im DeutschÜbersetzung im Kontext von „Backgammon Rules“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Opens the websites of FIBS Home, Backgammon Rules. Backgammon is one of the best PvP games ever created. The Backgammon offline turned into an online board game that stays true to the rules. These rules were prepared in conjunction with the International Backgammon Association and the Inter-Club League of New York. They appeared in Oswald.
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Casino testbericht Backgammon Rules echten erfahrungen ob die Umgehung des Schutzmechanismus vorwiegend dazu dient? - ScreenshotsThe backgammon rules for each tournament are publicized before it takes place. Backgammon für Anfänger Martingal Anlegen Könner, Beim ersten Popcorn Mit Butter verwendet jeder Spieler nur einen Würfel. Backgammon is one of the best PvP games ever created. Mike Svobodny from the 3rd Tournament of the Americas, These rules were prepared in conjunction with the International Backgammon Association and the Inter-Club League of New York. They appeared in Oswald. Backgammon rules in German. Backgammon ist ein Spiel für zwei Spieler, das auf einem Brett gespielt wird, das aus vierundzwanzig länglichen Dreiecken. Ablehnen des Eröffnungswurfes – California Rule[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Diese. Backgammon (Rules of the game) | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon.
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Backgammon Board. Example of a Backgammon board setup. Backgammon board setup with a checker on the bar.
End of the game : The bearing off. GammonVillage Shop. Facebook Twitter. The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.
Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is "safe". All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge.
Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.
Gul bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.
Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.
Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere backgammon to lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.
Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.
The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".
The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.
The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.
For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.
In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score.
In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon. In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup.
Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult. In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued that backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.
Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.
Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.
One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game.
Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments.
Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.
Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the "Backgammon Million" tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.
Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
There are 24 triangles on the board known as points. The checkers are color coded, 15 of one color and 15 of another.
Each player will set their board according to the diagram below. This is the starting setup of the game, and players will strive to move all their pieces to their home board then successfully bare all their pieces off the board.
To start both players will roll one die, the player that rolled the higher die goes first. Usually you will roll two dice but since each player rolled one die each, the player with the higher roll will move first based off the die that they rolled and the die the opponent rolled.
From there players alternate turns accordingly. The bar is the middle crease of the board, where it folds in half. You can hit more than one of your opponents pieces in a turn.
Now the opponent with the piece on the bar cannot make any other move until their pieces are off of the bar. They must re-enter the board on their opponents home board.
When re-entering the game from the bar, you can use your whole turn. He may do this only at the start of his own turn and before he has rolled the dice.
A player who is offered a double may refuse , in which case he concedes the game and pays one point. Otherwise, he must accept the double and play on for the new higher stakes.
A player who accepts a double becomes the owner of the cube and only he may make the next double. Subsequent doubles in the same game are called redoubles.
If a player refuses a redouble, he must pay the number of points that were at stake prior to the redouble. Otherwise, he becomes the new owner of the cube and the game continues at twice the previous stakes.
There is no limit to the number of redoubles in a game. Gammons and Backgammons. At the end of the game, if the losing player has borne off at least one checker, he loses only the value showing on the doubling cube one point, if there have been no doubles.
However, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers, he is gammoned and loses twice the value of the doubling cube.
Or, worse, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers and still has a checker on the bar or in the winner's home board, he is backgammoned and loses three times the value of the doubling cube.
Optional Rules. The following optional rules are in widespread use. Automatic doubles. If identical numbers are thrown on the first roll, the stakes are doubled.
The doubling cube is turned to 2 and remains in the middle. Players usually agree to limit the number of automatic doubles to one per game.
When a player is doubled, he may immediately redouble beaver while retaining possession of the cube. The original doubler has the option of accepting or refusing as with a normal double.
The Jacoby Rule. Gammons and backgammons count only as a single game if neither player has offered a double during the course of the game.